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MODULE 3 — ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

Category A: 20 multi-choice and 0 essay questions. Time allowed 25 minutes.

Category B1: 52 multi-choice and 0 essay questions. Time allowed 65 minutes.

Category B2: 52 multi-choice and 0 essay questions. Time allowed 65 minutes.

Category B3: 24 multi-choice and 0 essay questions. Time allowed 30 minutes.

MODULE 3. ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS

LEVEL

A B1 B2 B3

3.1 Electron Theory

1 1 1 1

Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms, molecules, ions, compounds;

Molecular structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

3.2 Static Electricity and Conduction

1 2 2 1

Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges;

Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion;

Units of charge, Coulomb’s Law;

Conduction of electricity in solids, liquids, gases and a vacuum.

3.3 Electrical Terminology

1 2 2 1

The
following terms, their units and factors affecting them: potential
difference, electromotive force, voltage, current, resistance,
conductance, charge, conventional current flow, electron flow.

3.4 Generation of Electricity

1 1 1 1

Production of electricity by the following methods: light, heat, friction, pressure, chemical action, magnetism and motion.

3.5 DC Sources of Electricity

A B1 B2 B3

1 2 2 2

Construction
and basic chemical action of: primary cells, secondary cells, lead acid
cells, nickel cadmium cells, other alkaline cells;

Cells connected in series and parallel;

Internal resistance and its effect on a battery;

Construction, materials and operation of thermocouples;

Operation of photo-cells.

3.6 DC Circuits

— 2 2 1

Ohms Law, Kirchoff’s Voltage and Current Laws;

Calculations using the above laws to find resistance, voltage and current;

Significance of the internal resistance of a supply.

3.7 Resistance/Resistor

— 2 2 1

(a)
Resistance and affecting factors; Specific resistance; Resistor colour
code, values and tolerances, preferred values, wattage ratings;
Resistors in series and parallel; Calculation of total resistance using
series, parallel and series parallel combinations; Operation and use of
potentiometers and rheostats; Operation of Wheatstone Bridge;

— 1 1 —

(b)
Positive and negative temperature coefficient conductance; Fixed
resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations, methods of
construction; Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent
resistors; Construction of potentiometers and rheostats; Construction
of Wheatstone Bridge.

3.8 Power

— 2 2 1

Power, work and energy (kinetic and potential);

Dissipation of power by a resistor;

Power formula;

Calculations involving power, work and energy.

3.9 Capacitance/Capacitor

— 2 2 1

Operation and function of a capacitor;

Factors
affecting capacitance area of plates, distance between plates, number
of plates, dielectric and dielectric constant, working voltage, voltage
rating;

Capacitor types, construction and function;

Capacitor colour coding;

Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits;

Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor, time constants;

Testing of capacitors.

3.10 Magnetism

A B1 B2 B3

— 2 2 1

(a)
Theory of magnetism; Properties of a magnet; Action of a magnet
suspended in the Earth’s magnetic field; Magnetisation and
demagnetisation; Magnetic shielding; Various types of magnetic
material; Electromagnets construction and principles of operation; Hand
clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying
conductor;

— 2 2 1

(b)
Magnetomotive force, field strength, magnetic flux density,
permeability, hysteresis loop, retentivity, coercive force reluctance,
saturation point, eddy currents; Precautions for care and storage of
magnets.

3.11 Inductance/Inductor

— 2 2 1

Faraday’s Law;

Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field;

Induction principles;

Effects
of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: magnetic field
strength, rate of change of flux, number of conductor turns;

Mutual induction;

The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductance has on induced voltage;

Factors
affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil, physical size of
coil, permeability of coil, position of coils with respect to each
other;

Lenz’s Law and polarity determining rules;

Back emf, self induction;

Saturation point;

Principle uses of inductors.

3.12 DC Motor/Generator Theory

— 2 2 1

Basic motor and generator theory;

Construction and purpose of components in DC generator;

Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators;

Operation of, and factors affecting output power, torque, speed and direction of rotation of DC motors;

Series wound, shunt wound and compound motors;

Starter Generator construction.

3.13 AC Theory

1 2 2 1

Sinusoidal waveform: phase, period, frequency, cycle;

Instantaneous,
average, root mean square, peak, peak to peak current values and
calculations of these values, in relation to voltage, current and power;

Triangular/Square waves;

Single/3 phase principles.

3.14 Resistive (R), Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits

— 2 2 1

Phase relationship of voltage and current in L, C and R circuits, parallel, series and series parallel;

Power dissipation in L, C and R circuits;

Impedance, phase angle, power factor and current calculations;

True power, apparent power and reactive power calculations.

3.15 Transformers

A B1 B2 B3

— 2 2 1

Transformer construction principles and operation;

Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them;

Transformer action under load and no-load conditions;

Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings;

Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents;

Calculation of power in a three phase system;

Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio, power, efficiency;

Auto transformers.

3.16 Filters

— 1 1 —

Operation, application and uses of the following filters: low pass, high pass, band pass, band stop.

3.17 AC Generators

— 2 2 1

Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced;

Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators;

Single phase, two phase and three phase alternators;

Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses;

Permanent Magnet Generators.

3.18 AC Motors

— 2 2 1

Construction, principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase;

Methods of speed control and direction of rotation;

Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor, inductor, shaded or split pole.